Autonomous vehicles are becoming a reality and most of the major automakers have plans to commercially release an autonomous vehicle (nearly or fully self-driving, i.e. SAE levels L4 or L5 vehicles, respectively) by 2020-2024. However, the human factor will remain essential for the safety and performance of road transport in the forthcoming decades, mainly for two reasons:
Central to the human role in the Connected Automated Driving (CAD) is the transition from automated to manual driving mode. This might be system-initiated or user-initiated.
Evidently, in such a dynamic driver-vehicle interaction scheme, several challenges arise: to evaluate the driver’s availability to intervene; the transition must be supported by an appropriate and comprehensible Human-Machine Interfaces; a proper driver training; legal and ethics perspective.